Tuesday, November 18, 2014


  1. What is retrofitting?
Ans:- Retrofitting is the proper Technic of civil engineering where we make the old buildings protected against earth quake by this procedure.There are three methods of retrofitting.
  • H.D.G.I wire method.
  • Mesh with subsidiary column method.
  • Angle iron method.

Insulation of  buildings

insulation of walls
Insulated Walls
Insulation Of Building Walls:-  This is the best and modern Technique of civil engineering where we insulate the walls internal sites of the building to maintain the temperature of house. This method is applying mostly in cold areas. Some of materials used for insulation are mention under here.
1. P.E. Foam
2. Wooden Strips
3. Reflective Foil
4. Polythene Sheet
5. Expended Metal Mesh
6. Plaster or ply wood
Q. Why insulation is important?

Ans:- Particularly in cold areas, we can't bear the cold temperature. Therefore, we insulate  internal sites of the building against by the cold temperature.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014


Introduction: To make bound of stone to use any suitable mortar and have to get constructed structure is called stone masonry. Stone masonry is used to construction for building of pillars, walls, and foundations. Generally, there are some types of stones are used in the stone masonry. Some are under following here.
1. Slate                                              2.Granite
3. Marble                                           4. Sand stone
5. Lime stone                                    6. Laterite
There are some that mostly use during in the stonemasonry work.
1. Trowel                      2.Square
2. Bevel                        3. Spirit Level
4. plumb bob                5. Steel Tape
6. Mallet                       7. Iron Hammer
8. Chisel                       8. Jumpe
There are two big types of stone masonry.
1. Rubble Masonry
2. Ashlar Masonry
1. Rubble Stone Masonry: In this type of stone masonry is made without to dressing stones. There are types of rubble stone masonry is give under here.
1. Random Rubble Masonry.             2. Coursed Rubble Masonry
3. Square Rubble Masonry                4. Dry Rubble Masonry
2. Ashlar Stone Masonry: In this type of stone masonry is made after its stones dressing. There are some types of ashlar stone masonry.
1. Fine Ashlar Masonry                     2. Rough Faced Ashlar Masonry
3. Chamfered Ashlar Masonry           4. Ashlar Facing

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Civil engineering study

Civil engineering studyIntroduction: Civil Engineering study is dependent upon measuring, recording and attracting to scale the physical characteristics on the surface of the earth. For distinctive overview destinations, diverse devices and review gear is utilized. The surveyor utilization instruments for measuring, a field book for recording and these days looking over virtual products for plotting and attracting to scale the site characteristics.

Study of Civil Engineering
Study of civil engineering has contained on many different subjects. There are such types of civil engineering subjects are mentioned under here.                                                                                   
3.Quantity survey 
5.Mechanics of structure
6.Soil mechanics


Civil engineering study
1. Surveying: In civil engineering the field of surveying is the most necessary and popular for the construction of works where we collect the necessary information and that information’s has been appeared on the drawing sheet before the starting of project by the surveying. After surveying of project we come to know about the dimensions and map. After that we start our work the supervision of map and dimensions of project.

Definition of survey: In the civil engineering survey stands to collect necessary information about any area and project. These information's are appeared on drawing sheet. The procedure of survey is called as surveying. There are main two  types of survey. One is plain survey and second is geodetic  survey.

2. Drafting: Drafting field is most popular and necessary field of civil engineering without this field we can not start the work on project and can not find estimate of project. There fore after the surveying of project we draw a map of project according to their dimension and survey details.

3.Quantity Survey: In civil engineering the quantity survey is the most necessary survey where we find the cost of project before its staring work on project. We have guessed the cost of project that, how many amounts, would need to complete the project by quantity survey. Quantity survey is the most popular field of civil engineering where we calculate the quantity of every using material on project then we find the rates of material by their quantity and at last we can find the total cost of project. There are three important things need to estimate any project one is drawing of project second thing is specifications of the using material on project and third necessary thing is present  rates of the materials.

4. Construction: Construction is the basic field and subject of civil engineering where we learn  about the procedures of different works  that how we can build any structure. For example the procedure of construction buildings, Roads, Reservoirs, Dams, Channels, and many others etc..

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Road structure

Road Structure
Road Structure
Introduction: When we cut the road from vertically side then we can see the different parts of road. This action is called as cross section. We can define easily the different parts of road by cross section. Road structure means the different parts of road which they are made on process just like sub-grate is the first part and step of road that is the natural earth level. Second part of road is sub-base. It is not important part of road. If the sub-grate will be weak then we make sub-base for the strength of road. Third part of road is base that is important part of road and last part of road is surfacing. This is the top part of road. There are some parts of road and its explanation of parts are under here.

1. Sub-grade
2. Sub-base
3. Base
4. Surfacing
1. Sub-grade: Sub-grade is the natural earthen level which on road is made. Generally its surface   is kept 2 feet high from earthen level. So that the water of rain cannot stand on road surface. If the road need to make on cutting part so sub-grade will be made under earth surface. Mostly strength of road depends on sub-grade’s durability.

2. Sub-Base: This part of road is not important but when sub-grade is weak then we make base for the strength of road by lay stone aggregates or use other suitable materials for providing a new layer that is called sub- base.

3. Base: This is the important part of road that bears the load of traffic. All traffics load is converted on this part of road and this part weight mold the on base or on sub-grade. Mostly the strength of road depends on this part of durability. Generally this part of road has been contained on strong aggregate.

4. Surfacing: This is the top part of road which that makes equal level of road surface. Similarly the water of road should not be observed on the surface.  This part of road protects the other parts of road. For example, base, sub-base and sub-grade.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Types of road

Types of road
Village road
Introduction: Road is the such type of way which on different  types of vehicles can go one place to another place leagly.This type of way is called as road. The width of road and other designs of road depends on the traffic that are using the road. Similarly we think about importance of the road before its structure making and then we choise its material according to specification. As you know that, often we need to design different types of road according to our using objectives.There are many types of roads motioned under here.
1.Village road
2. District road
3. State high way
4. National high way
5. Express high way and Motor way

1. Village Road: This type of road designed on village and it is made by aggregate and clay.First of all its first step make to lay aggregates and compected it then lay the clay on road and mixed for the best bond of clay. This type of roads width is been 3.8 mater and(12 feet).

Types of road
District road
2. District roads: These types of roads have linked with the different cities of district. During it’s preparing aggregates and bitumen’s are used. Its width size has contained 3.8 mater (12 feet)

3. State high way: This type of roads has linked with different cities to one another and it is also linked with national high way. Generally this type of roads has contained its width nearly 7.50 mater (24 feet).

4. National high way: This type of country roads which they have linked with capital of country to capital of province and join with other cities of country. Similarly this road also touches with our neighbors countries.

5. Express high way and motor way: Express high way and motor way are modern roads. This type of roads is made for most fast traffic. This road has linked with province to province, district to district and city to city. Similarly this road also touches with our neighbors countries.

Monday, February 17, 2014

Civil Technalogist-Roles and Responsiblities

Civil Technalogist-Roles and Responsiblities
Civil work
Introduction: Civil technology is the famous and vast side  of  technology. This is the type of technology which contains with the construction and building, bridges, reservoirs, design of highways, tunnels and other several facilities. Civil technologists have a great deal of responsility in their side. The are directly responsible for the management and planning of construction to take place. Not  only do they aid in designing but also take an effective part in estimating, scheduling, obtaining materials, planning, costs, controlling costs and selecting equipment that is be used. In the field of a construction civil technologists, construction design of the process analysis, mathematics and science all are very important and necessary. Civil technologists are directly responsible for the construction of many proper buildings that you come across on a daily basis.
There are two crucial aspects within this field. You may difficulty in consulting both a civil technology and constructing a civil technologist. They key responsibility of a consulting civil technologist is regarding designing of the project while contracting civil technologists deal with the actual construction where they play a significant roll in transforming a planed designed layout into real architecture. Moreover, being a civil engineer, there are many further specialization that are an essential part of the sector.
A civil technologist job is engaged in different activities starting from the selection of land to the final construction. Some of the responsibilities and key roles of a civil technologist are as follows.

1. A civil technologist start from analyzing many areas and factors that are link to designing and construction.
2. Search, enquire and check the location of field and conform whether it is appropriate for construction purposes.
3.This is the job of civil technologist to work according to a plan with regards what are the key essential and what necessities to be modified before the construction start.
4. Check and approve project reports and designs.
5. A civil technologist should develop detailed design layout that covers the requirement the client.
6. Asses both challenges and potential risks of the planed project.
7. A civil technologist's job includes putting across construction proposal and site to the specified and supervising the tendering process.
8. The civil technologist most also check if all tools and methods like procedures of chemical testing, land surveying, drafting software .
9. Set a complete schedule for purchase of tools and raw material.
10. The civil technologist should ensure the project is completing on time within the planned project.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014



Introduction: There is need unit rate to analyze the rate of concrete work. This unit of rate is supposed 10 cubic meter or 100 cubic feet. To do find  the materials quantity So, we have need to analyzed  the unit rate. As you know that concrete is prepared in the wet form. This quantity we change into dry quantity do multiply by 1.54. After the find of concrete work's rate that time we also include cost of labor and cost of materials. There is found the concrete's components like fine aggregates, course aggregate and cement from the dry materials volume. Before the start our work we must have calculator for calculation .  First of all we find the sum  . For example, we have the ratio of concrete is 1:2:4. Then we find its sum by this formula.

Cement +Fine aggregate+ Course aggregate=Sum of components
              1 : 2 : 4 = 7

Second we find the quantity of material by this formula.

Quantity of material = Ratio of material  ÷  Sum of ratio × dry material of concrete
Now,  we try  to analyze the 100  Cft cement  concrete  quantity according to  the ratio of  (1:2:4)  in F.P.S . System.
                Quantity of wet material =   100  Cft
                Quantity of dry material =   100  ×  1.54 = 154 Cft
                Ratio of concrete =   1  :  2  :  4
Now  we  find sum of this ratio (1  :  2  :  4)
                  =   1  +  2 +  4   =   7
1. First of all we find the quantity of cement  by this formula.
Cement quantity = Cement ratio/Sum of ratio × Dry material
                = 1 / 7 ×   154   =   22 Cft
The volume of one bag cement is equal to 1.25
Then we find the bags to divide the volume of bag (1.25)   from the found out the cement quantity (22).
                = 22  ÷   1.25  = 17.6 Say 18 bags.
2.In second step we will find the quantity of sand.
Sand quantity = Sand ratio / Sum of ratio × Dry material.
                Sand quantity  =  2 / 7 ×  154  =  Say 44 Cft sand.
3. In third step we will find the quantity of aggregates by this formula.
Quantity of aggregates =  Ratio  of  aggregates / Sum of ratio × Dry materials.
                Quantity of aggregates  = 4  /  7 × 154  =  Say 88 Cft aggregates quantity.
Cost of material:
                                     18 bags cement @Rs.690/bag = 18 × 690 = 12420.
                                     44 Cft sand @Rs.200/50 =  44 × 200/50 = 176
                                     88 Cft bajri @ Rs.300/50 = 88 × 300/50 = 52
Total cost of material = 12420 + 176 + 528 = 13124 amount
          These are not exact rates of materials just for understanding.
Cost o f carriage :
                                18 bags cement @Rs.500/50 means (1 load =50 Cft ) = 18 × 500 / 50 = 180 say 200
                                44Cft sand @Rs.500/50 =  44 × 500 / 50  = 440 say 500

                                88 Cft bajri @Rs.500/50 = 88 × 500 / 50 = 880 say 90
Total cost of carriage: 200 + 500 + 900 = 1600

Sunday, February 2, 2014


Introduction: House is basic need of our life. As you know that, without house we are not secured, comfortable, safe and confident in our life. So, It is necessary to build a home for every person who wants to spend good life. Mostly people think that, they have not large plot and have not  lot of money. But,  should not have to fear. Now, we can build a simple home on short plot and on minimum value. We have tried to draw a simple home design for the people they have found to build a home in minimum cost on a short plot. There is a sample of a simple home design map to give some ideas about home for the people. This map of simple house is made on imaginary basis to give concept of people. As you know there is no mentioned any dimension.

Simple home design
Description about this simple home: This simple house is contained on seven different portions. This simple home has three rooms attached with two toilets and one is open toilet that is separate from the rooms. The dining room and kitchen is attach with to gather and it is attached with store.